Review of Rainfall-Runoff Modelling in Ethiopia

 Mesfin Reta Aredo					

Arba Minch Water Technology Institute, Arba Minch University, Ethopia

Correspondence should be addressed to Mesfin Reta Aredo;

Received 12-12-2020; Accepted 26-12-2020; Published 29-12-2020

Handling Editor :   Tarun K. Lohani


Rainfall-Runoff modelling is critical to the understanding of the hydrological process and hydrological models are crucial tools for water resources planning, developments and management in a sustainable approach. Currently, a lot of models developed throughout a world and researchers conducting researches to check the model performances in different areas. The most commonly used and freely available models are Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS), Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavedlning (HBV) and Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In this review, a review was done to evaluate rainfall-runoff modelling in Ethiopia. The highest model’s performance results using HEC-HMS model coefficient of determination (R2 ) value 0.925 and 0.842, and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) value 0.884 and 0.746, HBV were in R2 0.85 and 0.84, and NSE value 0.80 and 0.78, and SWAT model were 0.82 and 0.78, and NSE 0.70 and 0.71 in calibration and validation respectively. The most reputable model was SWAT performed average performance evaluation most studies and HEC-HMS model performed well than other models reviewed during the study. This review will help the researchers, policymakers and management in giving the overview summary of rainfall-runoff modelling.

An inclusive survey of Steganography and Steganalysis: A Review

 Mohammed Wasim Bhatt					

Department of Computer Science Engineering, Punjab, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Mohammed Wasim Bhatt;

Received 5-12-2020; Accept 24-12-2020; Published 28-12-2020

Handling Editor :   Rashed Qayoom Shawl


Steganography is an art of covering the secret data by using different cover files such as text, images, audio, video files etc. Steganography can be combined with cryptography to provide extra security to the data. Steganography is derived from two Greek words: (i) steganos (ii) graphia. Steganos means “covered” and Graphia means “writing”. Cryptography is an art of securing the data from unauthorised access. It is derived from two Greek words: (i) kryptos (ii) graphein. Kryptos means “secret” and Graphein means “study”. Steganalysis is a technique to detect hidden information using Steganography. This is similar to cryptanalysis technique which is used in Cryptography.

A Critical Evaluation of Self Compacting Concrete Using Mineral Admixture

 Surinder Singh,  Mukesh Kumar					

Civil Engineering Department, Universal Group of Institutions, Punjab, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Surinder Singh;

Received 11-12-2020; Accept 23-12-2020; Published 26-12-2020

Handling Editor :   Vishal Jagota


This research provides an experimental study on the workability measures of multiple mineral admixtures (slump, L-box, U-box and T50). The approach followed the 10 percent, 20 percent and 30 percent substitute mineral admixtures for Portland cement and output is measured and compared. It explores the impact of mineral admixtures on the workability of self-compacting concrete. The mixing ratio is obtained in compliance with the recommendations issued by the European Federation of producers and contractors of special products for structure. It is observed that the optimal dosage of super plasticizer increased the concrete’s flow property. As a consequence, overall changes were observed in the flow and filling capacity of the self-compacting concrete. It is also found that the amount of superplasticizer required to attain a given fluidity is decreased where mineral admixtures are used in self-compacting concrete. The effect of mineral admixtures on the criteria for admixtures is substantially dependent on their distribution of particle size, particle form and surface characteristics.

A Comprehensive review on Software Development Life Cycle

 Gargi Kalia					

Department of Computer Science Engineering, Universal Group of Institutions, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Gargi Kalia;

Received 02-12-2020; Accepted 21-12-2020; Published 24-12-2020;

Handling Editor :   Sparsh Sharma


Software Engineering is a branch of computer science which deals with software production. Software engineers develops different kinds of software’s and provide proof to validate these results. This paper basically gives a review of software development life cycle. It gives a detailed insight of all the models used in software engineering such as Classical waterfall model, Spiral model, Prototype model, Big-Bang model, Incremental model, Agile model and V-Shaped model. Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a procedure used for designing, developing and testing software’s. SDLC helps in providing best quality software’s which meets customer’s expectations and it ensures the timely delivery of the project.

Impact of climate change on water resource in Upper Blue Nile basin: A Review

 Damte Tegegne Fetene					

Arba Minch Water Technology Institute, Arba Minch University, Ethopia

Correspondence should be addressed to Damte Tegegne Fetene;

Received 04-12-2020; Accepted 16-12-2020; Published 19-12-2020

Handling Editor :   Tarun K. Lohani


Climate change impact influence the water resource planning choice. The upper Blue Nile river basin is the part of the Nile river basin found in Ethiopia has an important role in the hydrology of the Nile river basin. About 60% of the streamflow source of Nile River comes from this basin. Effects of change climate indicate that rise in maximum temperature and mean annual streamflow. Hydrological Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning (HBV) and SWAT hydrological models were used for assessment of the impact of climate change on streamflow, water resource and water resource. The models show good performance quality in calibrations and validation. The investigation indicates Upper Blue Nile basin was significantly and sensitive to climate change and affected due to climate change in all analysis.

Utilization of Resources on Cloud Hosting Network in Secure Environment


Manik Rakhra,   Neha Verma

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India

Correspondence should be addressed to Manik Rakhra;

Received 14-11-2020; Accepted 01-12-2020; Published 02-12-2020

Handling Editor :   Ashutosh Sharma


In this recommended framework that strengthened the adaptive hierarchical scheduling objectives to build such a program that can perform N amount of jobs on processors that can work much better and operate more effectively than current  systems. In this paper, suggest a hybrid method for scheduling multi-computers in large-scale distributed memory, named dynamic scheduling, which illustrates the possible advantages of memory slicing and duration filtering while concurrently addressing their disadvantages. The effects of such a mix through comprehensive simulated studies where two workload models test the relative efficiency of the tree strategy along with appropriate space and time slicing techniques.